Goffman: Gender Advertisements In his book Gender Advertisements (), Erving Goffman describes how femininity and masculinity is. (1) The strongest gender’s stereotypes, identified from Goffman, still . “What Erving Goffman shares with contemporary feminists is the felt. 2 No. 24 [Special Issue – December ]. Adapting Erving Goffman’s “ Gender Advertisements”to Interpret Popular Sport. Depictions of American Indians.
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By looking at over different photo advertisements and analyzing the different poses, positioning of the body, clothing, and so on, he finds stark contrasts between how males and females are portrayed. In a variety of ways, women gofdman portrayed as soft, vulnerable, fragile, powerless, dreamy, grnder, and submissive. While Goffman mainly focuses on the construction of femininity within advertising he also offers insight in how masculinity is portrayed, as the two are depicted and defined as relative to each other.
In opposition to how women are portrayed, men are generally depicted as confident, comfortable, present and aware of their surroundings, even intimidating — prepared for whatever may come their way. Goffman argues that these poses have nothing advertisemebts do with biology or natural traits, but rather with how our culture defines as feminine and masculine.
To back up this point, consider how homosexual men are more adbertisements to be depicted in the same poses as women, which tells us that this has less to do with male physique than with cultural notions of femininity and masculinity. It also tells us that portrayals of women and homosexual men in advertising are directed towards the same audience: This will be illustrated in the following section, where I look into the different frames of female subordination Goffman detected in photo advertising.
What is particularly striking, argues Goffman, is the level of which such messages have become gendrr, as we have stopped questioning the odd and often unnatural poses we drving in advertising, and the adverttisements in which the female is constructed as subordinate and powerless.
In his analysis, Goffman addresses several trends and patterns in how femininity and masculinity is portrayed, as well as the messages this coveys to the viewer. Of the many observations Goffman makes, I have gooffman to focus on 6 different frames within which females are depicted in advertising, as these appears particularly relevant to the study at hand:.
This light touch can also involve self-touching, where women are softly touching or caressing themselves; the tips of the fingers slightly gracing the face, neck, shoulder, and so on. It can be argued that the pose is frequently sexualized, with the woman touching her crotch, breasts, mouth and so on. Within this context, the pose can be interpreted as sexually inviting, depicting the woman as sexually available and accessible.
Women, in addition to children, are furthermore frequently portrayed as lying down, on the ground or on a bed, as opposed to men, who are predominately depicted standing tall and upright. Goffman argues that message that is conveyed by having the woman l ying down, sometimes even at the feet of a standing man, is that she is vulnerable, that she is counting on the benignness of her surroundings and of the standing man.
As mentioned, this is in stark contrast to how men are often depicted as present, aware of their surroundings, ready to react. The floor is furthermore something associated with the less clean or pure, while being elevated may be indicative of high social ranking.
Here, Goffman specifically mentions that this pose can also be eroticized: The crossing of the legs while standing is a variation of this pose. This makes her appear as out of balance, as ungrounded.
Women are often depicted with their head tilted to one side, or with their entire upper body canted. This, in turn, lowers the level of her head in relation to others, advertisementa the viewer of the image, who addvertisements will have to look up on ibid,: This is in opposition to the poses frequently struck by men, who are holding their head high and looking down on, or directly at the viewer: The tilting of the head can arguably portray the woman as uncertain, wondering, or coy.
Alternatively, women are portrayed with their head thrown back, exposing their throats. This is another submissive pose, as it implies that she has accepted her vulnerability and powerlessness, and it further makes her exposed and vulnerable. This pose implies that she is not paying attention to the world around her, and that she is psychologically removed from the social situation at large.
This, again, makes her seem vulnerable, fragile and delicate, and at the mercy of the benign-ness of her surroundings. As Goffman puts it, women are adrift, while men are anchored and present. This is often reinforced by the fact that men are more likely to be portrayed gripping something firmly, or with their hands in the pockets, whereas the woman often is out of balance, or tightly gripping a man, seemingly for support and protection.
Goffman further notes goff,an infantilization of grown women in advertising, blurring the lines between women and girls, between womanhood and childhood: This is done in multiple ways.
Firstly, women and little girls can be portrayed together, wearing the same clothes, looking the same, and doing the same activities.
Secondly, women are more frequently depicted in positions where the whole body is used in a playful way, a sort of body clowning ibid: Thirdly, women are more likely to be depicted with a finger brought to the mouth, sucking or biting it, as do little children.
This can imply confusion, anxiety, or being lost in thought or not thinking at all. You are commenting using your WordPress.
Gender advertisement – Wikipedia
You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Of the many observations Goffman makes, I have chosen to focus on 6 different frames within which females are depicted in advertising, as these appears particularly relevant to the study at hand: Lying Down Women, in addition to children, are furthermore frequently portrayed as lying down, on the ground or on a bed, as opposed to men, who are predominately depicted standing tall and upright.
Theory: Goffman | genderdisplays
Tilted Head or Body Women are often depicted with genxer head tilted to one side, or with their entire upper body canted. Infantilization Goffman further notes the infantilization of grown women in advertising, blurring the lines between women and girls, between womanhood and childhood: This is helpful study material for my gender studies class. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Email required Address never made public.